Coat of arms of Oliver Cromwell

The First English Civil War

Battle of Edgehill

23 October 1642

Charles I (second-left, with blue sash), portrayed in 'The Eve of the Battle of Edge Hill, 1642' by Charles Landseer, 1845 (detail).

Above: Charles I (second-left, with blue sash), portrayed in 'The Eve of the Battle of Edge Hill, 1642' by Charles Landseer, 1845 (detail).

13,500 - the estimated size of the Royalist army.

12,500 - the estimated size of the Parliamentary army.

3,500 - the approximate number of Parliamentary soldiers who were still en route to the battlefield when battle commenced.

Did You Know?

Oliver Cromwell was not involved in the main battle. The troop he captained arrived late and were involved in later engagements against Royalist Horse.

1 hour - the length of the initial cannonade at the beginning of the battle, in which artliiery fired canon at each other, with minimal impact.

2pm - the time this cannonade is commonly believed to have started.

3pm - the estimated time that the main battle commenced, the first pitched battle of the English Civil War.

3 days - the approximate length of this battle in its entirety.

Did You Know?

This battle is commonly considered to have been a draw or stalemate, although some commentators see it as a victory for the Royalists as the Parliamentarians failed to stop them getting to London.

SP359493 - grid reference of the battlefield.

CV35 0UJ - nearest postcode.


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Battle of Adwalton Moor

30 June 1643

With the Royalists marching on Bradford, and aware that the town could not resist a siege, parliament's Northern Association army advanced to meet their enemy. Around 5 miles south west of the town, on exposed moorland, the two sides engaged. Fought as part of the campaign for the north, this battle resulted in a Royalist victory, consolidating their control over Yorkshire.

12 - the estimated number of days that the available provisions would have sustained any defence of Bradford.

9.00 am - the approximate time that battle commenced.

3 hours - the duration of the fighting.

10,000 - the approximate size of the Royalist army, under the command of the Earl of Newscastle.

5,000 - the number of Royalist cavalry.

5,000 - the number of Royalist infantry.

4,000 - the approximate size of the Parliamentary army, under the command of Lord Fairfax.

300 - the number of Parliamentary cavalry.

3,500 - the number of Parliamentary infantry.

2 - the number of Royalist charges which were initially repulsed, the Parliamentary army having an advantagious position along the hedge-lined edge of the moor, and despite significantly lower numbers overall, more musketeers.

400 - the approximate number of Parliamentary casualties (deaths amongst the Royalists were negligable).

Did You Know?

Lady Fairfax was captured whilst escaping from Bradford, but Newcastle, in an act of chivalry, had her escorted to Hull in his own coach.

SU019651 - grid reference of the battlefield.

BD11 1BD - nearest postcode.


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Battle of Roundaway Down

13 July 1643

09 July 1643 - the date the Parliamentary army lay siege to Devizes.

300 - the number of cavalry with whom Prince Maurice rode to Oxford to seek Royalist reinforcements.

45 miles - the distance that Maurice and his men rode, from Devizes to Oxford, in a single night.

1,500 - the number of cavalry despatched from Oxford, under the command of Lord Wilmot.

12 July 1643 - the date the Royalist relief force rendezvoused at Marlborough, before riding into battle the folowing day.

3.00 pm - the approximate time that battle commenced.

1,800 - the initial size of the Royalist army, under the command of Lord Wilmot.

1,800 - the number of Royalist cavalry.

3,000 - the number of Royalist infantry, who were stationed at Devizes and only joined the battle later.

2 - the number of light 'galloper' guns.

5,000 - the approximate size of the Parliamentarian army, under the command of Sir William Waller.

2,500 - the number of Parliamentary cavalry.

2,500 - the number of Parliamentary infantry.

8 - the number of heavy field guns.

4 - the approximate number of these guns that the Royalists captured, turning them on the Parliamentary infantry.

Did You Know?

Roundaway Down was a decisive victory for the Royalists, and allowed them a dominance in the south west that soon led to the capture the city and port of Bristol, during a series of Royalist successes that became known as the 'Royalist summer'.

600 - the approximate number of Parliamentary army casualties (the number of Royalist army killed or captured is not known).

1,000 - the number of Parliamentary soldiers captured.

SU019651 - grid reference of the battlefield.

SN10 2LL - nearest postcode.


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First Battle of Newbury

20 September 1643

In the autumn of 1643, the Parliamentarians had no effective field army, following a year of decisive Royalist victories at Banbury, Oxford, Reading and Bristol. When the Royalists lay siege to Gloucester, the Earl of Essex marched to the city with a relieving army of 15,000 men. Having driven the Royalists away, Essex began a retreat to London, but the Royalists regrouped and set off in pursuit, overtaking Essex at Newbury.

24 hours - the time it took for Charles I to hear that Essex had retreated.

5 miles - the distance (8.0 km) that the Parliamentary army were travelling each day, under the mistaken belief that they were not being pursued.

30 miles - the distance that the Royalist army would need to travel to reach Newbury first.

20 miles - the distance that the Parliamentary army needed to travel to reach Newbury.

7,000 - the number of Royalist cavalry sent ahead under Prince Rupert in a 'flying column' (a smaller unit that could travel at speed) in order to reach and slow the Parliamentary retreat.

19 September 1643 - the date the Royalists reached and secured Newbury.

14,500 - the approximate size of the Royalist army, under the command of King Charles I.

8,000 - the approximate number of Royalist cavalry.

6,000 - the approximate number of Royalist infantry.

6 - the number of Royalist heavy artillery pieces (2 demi-cannons, 2 culverins, and 2 twelve-pounders).

6 - the number of Royalist medium artillery pieces (5 six-pounders and 1 saker).

8 - the number of Royalist light artillery pieces (2 mynions, 4 three-pounders, and 2 bases).

14,000 - the approximate size of the Parliamentary army, under the command of the Earl of Essex.

6,000 - the approximate number of Parliamentary cavalry.

8,000 - the approximate number of Parliamentary infantry.

150 - the approximate number of Parliamentary dragoons.

20 - the approximate number of Parliamentary light artillery pieces.

2 - the approximate number of Parliamentary demi-culverins (medium-sized cannon with a range of around 1,800 feet (550 m).

7.00 am - the approximate time that battle commenced on the morning of 20 September, as Essex advanced on the Royalist positions.

1,000 - the number of musketeers that were positioned atop Round Hill (which the Parliamentarians captured), who were then able to fire down upon any advancing Royalists.

2 - the number of regiments of the London Trained Bands that were used to close a potential gap in the centre of the Parliamentary line, that the Royalists were threatening to force their way through.

12.00 am - the time that fighting finally ended (midnight), with both sides exhausted and at effective stalemate. The following morning the Parliamentary army were allowed to continue their march to London unimpeded.

1,300 - the approximate number of Royalist casualties.

1,200 - the approximate number of Parliamentary casualties.

SU454662 - grid reference of the battlefield.

RG14 6AS - nearest postcode.


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Battle of Marston Moor

02 July 1644

22,000 - the estimated number of allied forces (Parliamentarians and Scots).

18,000 - the estimated number of Royalist forces.

3,000 - the estimated number of men under Cromwell's command (cavalry of the Eastern Association).

6pm - the approximate time the allied army attacked, as the Royalist commanders were eating supper.

3,000 - the approximate number of Royalist soldiers killed.

300 - the approximate number of allied soldiers killed.

SE491522 - grid reference of the battlefield.

YO26 7PJ - nearest postcode.


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Second Battle of Newbury

27 October 1644

7,500 - the approximate size of the Royalist army, under the command of King Charles I.

3,500 - the number of Royalist cavalry.

5,000 - the number of Royalist infantry.

19,000 - the approximate size of the Parliamentary army, under the command of the Earl of Essex.

7,000 - the number of Parliamentary cavalry.

12,000 - the number of Parliamentary infantry.

1,500 - the approximate number of Royalist casualties.

2,000 - the approximate number of Parliamentary casualties.

SU460688 - grid reference of the battlefield.

RG14 2JQ - nearest postcode.


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Battle of Naseby

14 June 1645

40,000 - the total number of Royalist troops under the command of King Charles I in June 1645.

1/4 - the number of the King's troops at the battle of Naseby (around 9,000-10,000).

14,500-17,000 - the estimated number of New Model men commanded by Fairfax (Parliamentarians).

9,000-10,000 - the estimated number of men commanded by the King (Royalists).

11.00 am - the time battle commenced.

3 hours - the duration of the battle.

150 - the number of men lost to Fairfax.

1,000 - the number of men lost to the King.

4,000 - the number of Royalists taken prisoner.

2,000 - the number of horses captured.

8,000 - the number of arms captured.

40 - the number of barrels of gunpowder captured.

100 - the number of camp followers murdered by the Parliamentarians, with others marked as whores by the slitting of the nose or slashing of the face.

19 June 1645 - a day of thanksgiving is appointed by Parliament, with a sumpuous banquet thrown.

3,000 - the number of Royalist prisoners led through the streets of London (21 June 1645).

SP684799 - grid reference of the battlefield.

NN6 6BS - nearest postcode.


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The Second English Civil War

Battle of Preston

18 August 1648

20,000 - the estimated number of Scots Royalists (under the command of the Duke of Hamilton).

8,500 - the estimated number of troops under Cromwell's command. Cromwell attacked the Scots from the rear.

9 days - the duration of the fighting.

140 miles - the distance covered by Cromwell's troops during the fighting, as they pursued the Scots south.

SD552287 - grid reference of the battlefield.

PR1 4PA - nearest postcode.


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Battle of Dunbar

03 September 1650

Struck silver military award for the Battle of Dunbar (front and reverse) by Thomas Simon, 1650 © Trustees of the British Museum.

Above: Struck silver military award for the Battle of Dunbar (front and reverse) by Thomas Simon, 1650 © Trustees of the British Museum.

12,000 - the approximate size of the Scottish Covenanters army, under the command of David Leslie.

2,500 - the approximate number of Covenanter cavalry.

9,500 - the approximate number of Covenanter infantry.

9 - the number of Covenanter artillery pieces.

11,000 - the approximate size of the Parliamentary army, under the command of the Oliver Cromwell.

3,500 - the number of Parliamentary cavalry.

7,500 - the number of Parliamentary infantry.

4.00 am - the approximate time that battle commenced, when the Parliamentarians advanced on the Covenanters right flank.

1 hour - the duration that firing lasted initially, before each side stopped and waited for first light.

5.30 am - the time that battle recommenced.

117 - the Psalm that Cromwell and his front line are reported to have sung having chased away the right flank of Scottish cavalry.

2 hours - the duration of the battle of Dunbar.

3,000 - the number of Scots soldiers killed according to Cromwell's account (probably exagerated).

10,000 - the number of Scots taken prisoner, as reported by Cromwell.

Did You Know?

Dunbar is regarded Cromwell's finest victories, and a special medal (see image above) was presented to all who fought in the battle, the first such medal in the English army.

5,000 - the number of Scots prisoners who were marched to Durham. Those who survived the march were imprisoned in Durham Cathedral before eventually being transported to Barbados or New England as indentured labourers.

8 days - the duration of the march to Durham. Many prisoners died on the march, either sick or malnourished.

20 - the approximate number of Parliamentarian soldiers killed.

58 - the approximate number of Parliamentarian soldiers wounded.

NT696767 - grid reference of the battlefield.

EH42 1RU - nearest postcode.


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Battle of Worcester

03 September 1651

2:1 - the ratio by which Cromwell's army outnumbered the Royalists.

16,000 - the approximate size of the Royalist army, under the command of King Charles I.

31,000 - the approximate size of the Parliamentary army, under the command of the Earl of Essex.

12 months - the exact period between Dunbar and Worcester.

Did You Know?

It is believed that Cromwell postponed the engagement at Worcester in order to ensure the attack occured on September 3rd, Cromwell's 'most auspicious day'.

3,000 - the approximate number of Royalist killed.

10,000 - the approximate number of Royalists taken prisoner, many of whom were transported to Barbados or New England as indentured labourers.

200 - the approximate number of Parliamentary casualties.

Did You Know?

One of the most high-profile casualties of the battle, Royalist commander the Duke of Hamilton (who died when a shot wound to his leg became infected) had his body temporarily hidden beneath the floorboards at the Commandery (the Royalist HQ) before being permanently laid to rest at Worcester Cathedral.

52 - Cromwell's age at the battle of Worcester.

Did You Know?

The battle of Worcester was the final crushing defeat of the Royalist army.

52 - Cromwell's age at the battle of Worcester.

45 days - the number of days that Charles II evaded capture before escaping to France.

SO854528 - grid reference of the battlefield.

WR5 3DJ - nearest postcode.



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